The TNA led to a prioritization of the efficient coal combustion technology. The increased efficiency will minimize greenhouse gasses and particularly NOx emissions. The Technology Action Plan details a project aiming to reduce coal dust by 180,000 tonnes in the town of Ekibastuz, a city of roughly 120,000 residents.
The largest country in the world to be landlocked, Kazakhstan’s 2.7 million km2 consists of a mostly arid terrain of steppes and desserts. The backbone of the economy rests on abundant fossil fuel reserves, which are mostly exported directly to China and to Europe through Russia. Despite efforts to diversify the economy, 2017 saw a 10% increase in oil production. Kazakhstan has a large agriculture sector as well, mainly grain and livestock. Agriculture areas are diminishing, as pollution from pesticides and toxic substances, as well as degraded pastures and erosion, render large parts of the country unsuitable for agriculture. So far there has been a total loss of 60 million ha, increasing annually by 250,000 ha.
Kazakhstan completed its TNA in 2017. The TNA addresses the imminent need for action through the implementation of technologies such as water metering and irrigation. Both technologies were previously unused in Kazakhstan despite their great conservation potential, as agriculture accounts for 70% of total water consumption. Drip irrigation, together with metering systems shows how Kazakhstan’s water management could adapt to its current and future climates.
Kazakhstan’s TNA contributes to the following Sustainable Development Goals: