Tonga is starting on its TNA process in 2020 as part of the TNA IV project, at which point it will start deciding its priority sectors and technologies for both mitigation and adaptation.
Tonga is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago that comprises 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited. Tonga is surrounded by Fiji, Wallis and Futuna, Samoa, Niue, Kermadec, New Caledonia and Vanuatu.
Tonga’s economy is, among other sectors, dependent on climate-sensitive sectors such as agriculture and fisheries. Hence, coastal resources are vital to the population’s livelihood. Nevertheless, marine resources such as coral reefs, mangroves and beaches are all under threat from the effects of climate change. Indeed, the country’s coasts are being degraded due to the mining of beach sand, rises in sea level and extreme events caused by climate change.
In addition, in the wet season the island experiences tropical cyclones, damaging the country’s local infrastructure, agriculture and major food sources. Tonga is also impacted by droughts during the dry season that deplete the supply of potable water. Finally, the rise in sea level, in combination with extreme weather events, is likely to contribute to the increased inundation of low-lying areas.
Tonga’s NDC focuses on the energy sector, with a plan to increase electricity generation from renewable energy sources for mitigation, the protection of coastal zones, public infrastructure and foreshores, and buildings and houses for adaptation. Transport, agriculture and waste management constitute other sectors that the country aims to focus on in order to reduce carbon emissions.